How do countries in the world react to cryptocurrency payments?

世界各国对加密货币支付态度如何?

Eurus Network
10 min readAug 16, 2021

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The world’s first cryptocurrency “Bitcoin” was born in 2009. Later, American engineers used Bitcoin to buy pizza and made the first transaction in the real world. Today, the two major payment giants VISA and Mastercard have all considered Cryptocurrency payment is one of the major development projects.

全球第一款加密货币「比特币」于2009年诞生,其后美国工程师用比特币来买比萨,进行了在现实世界中的第一笔交易;而今天两大支付巨头VISA、Mastercard 都纷纷视加密货币支付作为其中一大发展项目。

At the same time, more and more countries recognize the asset attributes of cryptocurrency. For example, the Republic of El Salvador announced to classify Bitcoin as legal currency; on the other hand, China still maintains a ban towards cryptocurrency and vigorously suppresses mining farms. However, China is actively supports blockchain financial applications and promotes blockchain technology such as the launch of digital yuan. This article is to explore relevant policies on cryptocurrency payments around the world, and take a closer look at the current world’s development and attitudes towards CDBC.

同时越来越多国家承认加密货币的资产属性,如萨尔瓦多共和国宣布将採用比特币作为法币;另一边厢,中国仍对加密货币抱封闭态度,大力打压矿场,不过就区块链金融经济应用却积极支持,大力推动区块链技术和产业创新发展,譬如开发数字人民币。本文将盘点世界各地对加密货币支付的相关政策,细看各国对中央银行数位货币发行的态度。

Europe’s attitude towards cryptocurrency is relatively open, and no country has a clear ban. The European Central Bank recently announced the launch of a 24-month central bank digital currency (CBDC) project to test the potential of the digital euro, focusing on its design and development, which means that euro zone citizens can directly open an account with the European Central Bank in the future. Countries such as the United Kingdom, Ukraine, Spain, and France all plan to launch their own CBDCs. For countries that are still waiting to see, such as Norway, the government reminds citizens to pay attention to cryptocurrency scams.

欧洲对加密货币的态度相对算是开放,目前并未有国家有明确禁令。近日欧洲央行宣布推出为期24个月的中央银行数位货币 (CBDC) 项目以测试数字欧元的潜力,着重其设计及研发,此意味着欧元区公民将来可直接在欧洲央行开设户口。国家如英国、乌克兰、西班牙及法国都计划推出自己的CBDC,仍在观望的国家如挪威,政府提醒国民需注意加密货币的骗局。

France 法国 🇫🇷

The Banque de France partnered with Banque Centrale de Tunisie for France’s seventh CBDC experiment. The aim is to find a way of making commercial cross-border transfers real-time, more transparent and cost-effective. Particularly for Tunisians who live and work in France sending digital Euros to Tunisia. Besides, The Banque de France and Monetary Authority of Singapore announced the successful completion of a wholesale cross-border payment and settlement experiment using CBDC.

法国央行宣布和突尼斯央行合作开展批发CBDC跨境支付试验,这是法国央行的第七次CBDC 实验。试验目的是探索一种即时、透明且更低价的商业跨境支付方法,特别针对在法国生活和工作的突尼斯人向突尼斯进行数字欧元转账的情景。另外,法国银行和新加坡金融管理局宣布,通过完全使用CBDC 成功完成了一项批发性跨境支付和结算实验。

Ukraine 乌克兰 🇺🇦

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky signed a law titled On Payment Services that allows the National Bank of Ukraine to issue a CBDC. The new law authorizes the NBU to set up regulatory sandboxes for testing payment services and instruments. Also, it requires close collaboration between central banks and local startups in payment market. The legislation is based on modern requirements and the standards of European regulatory acts, including the certification requirements pf payments Service.

乌克兰总统Volodymyr Zelensky 已签署《支付服务法》,授予乌克兰国家银行发行CBDC 的权力,并建立一个监理沙盒,以测试支付领域基于创新技术的新服务、技术和工具。该平台将使金融监管机构能够与该产业的新创企业密切互动,并更好地瞭解他们的需求。新的立法使乌克兰的法规与欧盟规则保持一致,也将加强对支付服务业者的客户认证要求。

United Kingdom 英国 🇬🇧

HM Treasury and The Bank of England have created a CBDC Taskforce to coordinate the exploration of ‘Britcoin’, a potential UK CBDC which is available to all households and businesses to make electronic payments. Any CBDC would be introduced alongside cash. The bank also pointed out digital currency payments may reduce payment cost and revitalize the economy.

英国财政部与英国央行共同成立CBDC 专案小组,研究数位版英镑「Britcoin」,允许企业和消费者直接在银行拥有数码帐号,以及进行交易。其目标让这款CBDC 可与现金并行。英国央行亦指出数字资币支付或可降低支付成本,从而振兴经济。

Spain 西班牙 🇪🇸

The inhabitants of Alicante, Spain, could soon test payment with the digital euro through a pilot version. Finance council Lourdes Llopis nominated the municipality to participate in the pilot test, representing El Campello mayor Juanjo Berenguer. For the implementation of cryptocurrencies, it requires the collaboration of local administrations, with a boost to local retail payments to verify the viability.

西班牙El Campello 市金融委员Lourdes Llopis 在当地会议上代表西班牙政府向阿利坎特市申请参加试点测试实施本地数字货币。亦指出对于加密货币的实施,有必要通过试点测试将其大量使用及实践,这需要当地政府的合作,增加当地零售支付,以真正验证其可行性。

Malta 马耳他 🇲🇹

Malta has attained its ‘Blockchain Island’ status when it became the first country in the world to provide a coherent regulatory framework for blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies. Some businesses on the island are already accepting bitcoin as a form of payment. People can eat and drink in restaurants, book a tennis class or even pay for a cab using bitcoin. More, Crypto.com is the first cryptocurrency firm to acquire Malta’s Electronic Money Institution (EMI) license. The license permits the firm to issue payment cards and offer bank transfers to customers in the European island nation.

有「区块链之岛」之称的马耳他通过法案,建立了区块链技术的监管框架,成为了全球首个为区块链提供明确法律监管框架的地区。岛上一些企业已经接受比特币作为一种支付方式。在餐厅吃喝,预订网球课程,甚至乘坐出租车都可用比特币来支付。此外,Crypto.com 成为首个获得马耳他金融服务管理局颁发的电子货币机构许可证的加密货币平台,将允许Crypto.com 在马耳他境内发行信用卡,并直接向消费者提供银行转账服务。

Estonia 爱沙尼亚 🇪🇪

Central bank of Estonia Eesti Pank worked with the European Central Bank and the central banks of Spain, Germany, Italy, Greece, Ireland, Latvia and the Netherlands on the experiment to assess one possible technical solution for the digital euro. The experiment that Eesti Pank participated in saw payments made in digital money between people with digital identities from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Spain. The digital euro system built during the test handled over 300,000 simultaneous payments a second and the money reached the payee in less than two seconds.

爱沙尼亚中央银行Eesti Pank 公布了一项与欧洲中央银行和西班牙、德国、义大利、希腊、爱尔兰和拉脱维亚的其他六家中央银行的实验中数字欧元的技术可能性。此实验测试了来自爱沙尼亚、拉脱维亚、立陶宛和西班牙的数字欧元用户之间的支付。该数字欧元系统每秒能够处理超过300,000 笔同时支付,使资金能够在不到两秒的时间内到达收款人。

In the Americas, after the El Salvador Congress voted to list Bitcoin as legal tender and became the first country in the world to officially adopt Bitcoin as legal tender, other countries such as Jamaica, Brazil and Panama will all promote support for cryptocurrency legislation. Currently, only Mexico prohibits the use of cryptocurrencies in the market.

美洲方面,继萨尔瓦多国会以投票通过将比特币列为法定货币,成为世界上第一个正式採用比特币为法定货币的国家后,其他国家如牙买加、巴西及巴拿马等都将推动支持加密货币的立法。目前只有墨西哥禁止加密货币于市场的使用。

U.S.A 美国 🇺🇸

Jackson, Tennessee is looking into how to accept crypto payments, see if it can allow employees to receive payments in bitcoin or citizens to accept property tax payments in bitcoin, which fights against inflation. In addition, Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell said a Fed report on CBDC would come in early September. The report will outline the benefits and risks of CBDCs, as well as cryptocurrencies and stablecoins more broadly. Also, he pointed out that stablecoins need regulation if they are going to play a major part within U.S. payments networks.

美国田纳西州积臣市开始研究接受加密货币支付的方法,并考虑使用比特币支付市政员工工资,及接受市民用比特币缴交房产税,以此来对抗通胀。另外,美联储主席鲍威尔预计将于9 月初发布数字货币报告来研究数字支付,特别提到稳定币更有望成为重要的支付方式,不过这需要适当的监管框架支持。

Source: https://www.emarketer.com/content/interest-crypto-payments-widening-among-us-consumers-per-bitpay-study

18% of the US adult population — 46 million consumers — said they will likely use cryptocurrencies to make a purchase this year, according to a recent study from PYMNTS and crypto payment service provider BitPay. The study found that about a quarter of crypto owners have used cryptos to buy groceries (25.3%), to make online gaming or gambling payments (25.1%), and for streaming purchases (24.1%).

根据 PYMNTS 和加密支付服务提供商BitPay 最近的一项研究,18% 的美国成年人口(4600 万消费者)表示他们今年可能会使用加密货币进行购买。该研究发现,大约四分之一的加密货币持有者使用加密货币购买杂货(25.3%)、进行在线游戏或赌博支付(25.1%)以及流媒体购买(24.1%)。

Canada 加拿大 🇨🇦

The Bank of Canada published a report discussing the benefits of developing a Canadian CBDC. It can have the same security as cash, while allowing payment systems for online transactions and peer-to-peer transfers, providing customers and merchants with low-cost payment tools.

加拿大中央银行Bank Of Canada发布的一项研究报告指出可从自己的CBDC中受益:该技术可以拥有与现金相同的安全性,同时允许用于在线交易和点对点转账的支付系统,为客户及商家提供低成本支付工具。

Jamaica 牙买加 🇯🇲

Bank of Jamaica (BOJ) minted Jamaica’s first batch of CBDC. A total of J$230 million dollars in CBDC will be issued to deposit-taking institutions and authorized payment service providers during the CBDC pilot exercise which ends in December. BOJ’s CBDC team demonstrated the process of minting digital currency during the ceremony.

牙买加央行已经铸造牙买加首批CBDC。在今年12月结束的CBDC试点期间,将向接受存款的机构和授权支付服务提供商发放总额为2.3亿牙买加元的CBDC。牙买加央行CBDC团队在仪式上展示了数字货币的铸造过程。

Argentina 阿根廷 🇦🇷

Congressman José Luis Ramón presented a bill to allow employees and service exporters to receive their full or partial salary in cryptocurrencies. He said the project helps Argentines can preserve the purchasing power of their remuneration and strengthen their autonomy.

国会议员José Luis Ramón 提交了一项允许工人以比特币和其他加密货币形式收取工资的新法案,他指该计划可以保留员工的购买力,同时增加他们的财务自主权。

Australia 澳大利亚 🇦🇺

The Reserve Bank of Australia has been conducting research into the implementation of a CBDC but does not believe a case for issuing one has yet emerged. RBA continues to closely monitor the case for a retail CBDC and is engaging with some other central banks on possible use cases, including for cross-border payments.

澳大利亚储备银行正进行一项研究来调查CBDC 的实施,但认为尚未出现令人信任的CBDC 发行案例。 RBA 继续密切关注零售的CBDC 案例,并正与其他中央银行就可能的使用案例作研究,包括跨境支付。

A recent survey released by data analytics firm Finder.com found that 35% of Australians believe cryptocurrency payments will one day surpass the Aussie dollar in total transactions. 15% of Australians have an app that lets them trade cryptocurrency and a further 12% intend to get one. That’s equivalent to 2.9 million Aussies already trading cryptocurrency from their phones.

数据分析公司Finder.com 最近发布的一项调查发现,35% 的澳大利亚人认为加密货币支付有朝一日将超过澳元的总交易额。 15% 的澳大利亚人拥有交易加密货币的应用程序,另有12% 的人打算拥有,这相当于290 万澳大利亚人已经通过手机交易加密货币。

New Zealand 新西兰 🇳🇿

New Zealand has become the first country to legalize cryptocurrency salaries since 2019, allowing employees to choose bitcoin as a form of payment. More, companies paying workers in cryptocurrency can deduct income tax through the country’s pay-as-you-earn plan.

新西兰于2019年宣布开放员工能选择以加密资产作为薪资类别,是第一个比特币工资支付合法化的国家;此外,使用加密货币支付薪资的公司还能藉由税务计划来扣除所得税。

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand will explore the potential for a CBDC as part of a series of consultations to be carried out from August to November. It aims to consult on issues key to the future of how New Zealanders pay and save. Also, it will explore the potential for a CBDC working alongside cash, and consider how to establish a more flexible and stable currency system to best respond to the impact of digital innovation in cryptocurrency and crypto payments.

新西兰央行将于 8 月至 11 月发布一系列货币和现金发行的相关论文,就新西兰人未来如何支付和储蓄的关键问题进行广泛咨询并征求反馈意见。论文将研究CBDC 与现金共存合作的可能性,及考虑如何建立一个更具弹性且稳定的货币体系,从而最好地应对加密货币和加密支付方面的数字创新冲击。

Comparing Europe and the Americas, most countries in Asia currently have relatively clear regulatory frameworks, and they are more active in the development of CBDC. The advancement of digital currencies by the People’s Bank of China leads the world. Japan, Russia, Palestine and other countries also promote domestic CBDC business.

对比欧洲和美洲,亚洲目前大多数国家都有了相对清晰的监管框架,以及对于CBDC 的发展都较积极,中国央行数字货币的推进进度引领全世界以外,日本、俄罗斯、巴勒斯坦等国也已在推进本国 CBDC 业务。

China 中國 🇨🇳

The People’s Bank of China has basically completed the research and development of the design and function of the digital yuan, the bank said in a white paper. The PBOC will further expand the scope of the trials and the scenarios they cover. In the future digital retail payment system, the digital yuan and funds in the electronic account of authorized operators are inter-operable, and both constitute cash in circulation.

中国人民银行发布的《中国数字人民币的研发进展白皮书》显示,目前数字人民币研发试验已基本完成顶层设计、功能研发、系统调试等工作,正选择部分有代表性的地区开展试点测试。在未来的数字化零售支付体系中,数字人民币和指定运营机构的电子账户资金具有通用性,共同构成现金类支付工具。

On the other hand, cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin are mostly used for speculation, which poses potential risks that threaten financial security and social stability, and become a payment tool for illegal economic activities such as money laundering, which will bring risks and challenges to the international monetary system and cross-border capital flow management. The launch of the digital yuan helps to withstand the impact of such private digital currencies and provide the public with safer and more reliable payment tools.

另一方面,比特币等加密货币多被用于投机,存在威胁金融安全和社会稳定的潜在风险,并成为洗钱等非法经济活动的支付工具,给国际货币体系、跨境资本流动管理等带来诸多风险挑战。数字人民币的推出有助于抵御此类私人数字货币冲击,为公众提供更安全、可靠的支付工具。

Japan 日本 🇯🇵

In 2017, cryptocurrencies were officially recognized as a valid form of payment method in Japan. The Bank of Japan confirmed that it has started CBDC trials. The aim is to explore the technical feasibility of a digital yen in its first phase Proof of Concept (PoC), targeting the development of a test environment and conducting experiments on basic CBDC functions related to payment, issuance, distribution and redemption. It will last for a year to March 2022. The second phase is to lay out key functions of digital yen, such as defining what entities would serve as intermediaries between the central bank and its deposit holders.

日本《支付服务法》于2017生效,正式承认可将加密货币作为支付方式。而日本央行今年确定启动CBDC 试验,第一阶段概念验证(PoC)目标开发一个测试环境,包括基本 CBDC 功能的正常运行如支付、发行、分发和赎回。该阶段将持续一年至2022 年3 月。而第二阶段则会更深入测试数字日元的关键功能,如哪些实体将充当存款持有人和中央银行之间的中介。

Korea 韩国 🇰🇷

Samsung Electronics has decided to participate in a project being pursued by the Bank of Korea, co-managed by Kakao to build a pilot platform for a CBDC. The pilot program will be launched to study the transfer of funds between countries, the issuance and distribution of CBDC, and to monitor its ultimate performance in a virtual environment. Samsung Electronics will test whether the digital currency can be used freely on its Galaxy smartphones without an internet connection.

三星电子将与被韩国央行选为CBDC模拟项目的运营商Kakao财团成为合作伙伴,并将启动试点计划以研究国家间的资金转移和汇款、CBDC的发行和分发,以及监控它在虚拟环境中的最终表现,三星还计划在其Galaxy智能手机中测试CBDC的无网支付。

Singapore 新加坡 🇸🇬

The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) and Banque de France (BdF) announced the successful completion of a wholesale cross-border payment and settlement experiment using central bank digital currency (CBDC). The experiment, supported by J.P. Morgan’s Onyx, simulated cross-border transactions involving multiple CBDCs (m-CBDC) on a common network between Singapore and France. This is the first m-CBDC experiment that applied automated market making and liquidity management capabilities to reap cross-border payment and settlement efficiencies.

新加坡金融管理局和法国银行宣布,通过完全使用CBDC成功完成了一项批发性跨境支付和结算实验。该实验由摩根大通的Onyx业务部门支持,在新加坡和法国的共同网路上模拟了涉及多个CBDC(m-CBDC)的跨境交易。这是第一个应用自动做市和流动性管理能力来获得跨境支付和结算效率的m-CBDC实验,旨在促进24/7实时的跨境支付。

Malaysia 马来西亚 🇲🇾

Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) will be running a proof-of-concept (PoC) project to gauge the merits of a CBDC with an initial focus on wholesale CBDCs. The central bank will actively assess the potential value proposition of CBDCs in light of developments in the digital assets and payments space. The issuance of CBDC should complement existing payment instruments including physical cash to ensure that all Malaysians, in particular the underserved communities, have continued access to safe and efficient payment solutions.

马来西亚中央银行将运行一个概念验证(PoC)项目,以衡量中央银行数字化的优点,并将最初的重点放在批发CBDC上。中央银行将根据数字资产和支付领域的发展,积极评估CBDC的潜在价值主张。 CBDC的发行应补充现有的支付工具,包括实物现金,以确保所有马来西亚人,尤其是服务欠缺的社区,能够继续获得安全有效的支付解决方案。

Vietnam 越南 🇻🇳

Last year, Vietnam’s Ministry of Finance established a research group that would study and proposes regulatory policies for the crypto industry. And this year Prime Minister Phạm Minh Chính has directed the central bank to begin exploring a CBDC implementation from 2021 to 2023. Vietnam is working towards creating a fintech regulatory sandbox, which could include a digital currency pilot.

越南财政部在去年成立虚拟资产和加密货币研究小组,以提出相关政策和管理机制,而今年越南总理范明政签署了新决定,要求央行在2021年至2023年期间,试行CBDC的实施。越南亦正努力创建一个金融科技监管沙箱包括一个加密货币的试点。

Thailand 泰国 🇹🇭

The Bank of Thailand will begin piloting its retail CBDC in the second quarter of 2022 and fully implement the currency over the next three to five years. The main objective of the currency is to provide citizens with access to more convenient and secure financial services. Retail CBDC is a digital form of money issued by the central bank comparable to physical banknotes, and can be used in financial transactions both online and offline.

泰国将于2022年第二季测试零售型CBDC,此后将在未来3年至5年内全面实施。零售型CBDC旨在提供便捷、安全的金融服务,与实物钞票相当,可以用于在线和离线的金融交易。

India 印度 🇮🇳

The Central Bank of India will launch a preliminary implementation model of CBDC as early as the end of this year, and is evaluating issues such as scope, technology, issuance methods, and verification mechanisms. This CBDC backed by sovereign, will lower the economy’s reliance on cash, enable cheaper and smoother international settlements, and protect people from the volatility of privacy cryptocurrencies.

印度央行最早会在今年年底前推出CBDC的初步实施模型,并正在评估范围、技术、发行方式和验证机制等问题。有国家支持的CBDC将能降低对现金的依赖,实现更便宜、更顺畅的国际结算,并保护人们免受私人加密货币波动的影响。

Cambodia 柬埔寨 🇰🇭

National Bank of Cambodia officially launched its blockchain-powered payment system, named “Bakong”. Bakong allows Cambodian citizens to pay at stores or send money through a mobile app, supporting settlements and remittances in riel or U.S. dollar. Bakong System is a closed system supported by multiple banking institutions. Need first transfer Cambodian fiat currency riel from bank account to Bakong account. Then can scan QR code via the mobile app, finally perform transactions with others by digital wallet.

柬埔寨正式推出区块链支付系统「Bakong」,Bakong让柬埔寨公民在商店付款或用手机程式来汇款,支持以瑞尔或美元结算和汇款。 Bakong System为一个由多家银行机构支持的封闭系统,必须先将柬埔寨法币瑞尔,从银行帐户转入Bakong帐户,才能透过扫描QR Code、使用手机应用程式,透过电子钱包与其他使用者进行转帐交易。

Even in the face of economic contraction caused by Covid-19, global digital currency competition continues. The price of cryptocurrency fluctuates, and all countries have certain doubts about the use of cryptocurrency payments; however, due to the strong development and demand of digital currencies, the implementation of central bank digital currencies has become a key project of various countries, and the regulatory framework will also be a consideration.

即使面临新冠肺炎疫情带来的经济萎缩,全球数字货币竞争继续进行。加密货币价格波动,各国对于使用加密货币支付都存在一定怀疑;但面对数字货币的强势发展及需求,推行中央银行数位货币纷纷都成为各国的重点项目,而监管方框亦会是考虑因素。

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Eurus Network

Eurus Economic interoperability blockchain network to transfer digital assets / cryptocurrency across completed different consensus mechanism network.